Science and technology are critical applications in man’s makes an attempt to exist, develop and get charge of his natural environment. At any time given that the discovery of science and its application person has consistently produced efforts to develop various systems in buy to conquer mother nature, recreate the entire world for his simplicity and benefits. Correct from the primitive moments, person invented bow and arrow, hearth, hoes, knives, cutlass and so on, in buy to deal with the existential challenges mother nature possesses. Even in the present entire world, the efforts of person are in totality geared in direction of the provision of food, clothing and shelter and other primary amenities for his survival.
In essence, person is equipped to maneuver his way all around the cosmos and come up with scientific discoveries simply because of his all-natural endowments. Male is obviously endowed with intelligence. He has the psychological and all-natural potential to forge tips and the potential to invent. The potential to invent would make him a creator or an inventor. As a result, the application of science to day-to-day lifetime manifests in the various inventions of person vis-à-vis the technological developments in human society. Science and technology, for that reason, are synthetic inventions of person essentially set to use for his benefits.
Male, Record OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY.
It is pertinent to mention that science does not exist exterior the social cultural natural environment of person. Male is the creator of science and the inventor of technology. In fact, person could be regarded as the highest expression of his natural environment. The improvement of science and technology is generally aimed at discovering remedies to certain existential challenges or difficulties of mother nature in a specific socio–cultural natural environment. Even though the mother nature of science implies an objective application to universal challenges and disorders, which is a deductionist approach to science we are unable to, however, deny the fact that it is at first qualified at dealing with particularistic cases in a offered natural environment.
Traditionally, person has played a vital position in the improvement of science and technology. The human society, no doubt, has gone by way of a series of evolutions, transformations and as very well as revolutions at each phase of its improvement. In the early Greek period of time, for instance, philosophy, art and science captivated most vast spread attention. Science and art have been component of philosophy. What existed however was speculative science. This was the period of time in which Thales lived. He regarded as the first noteworthy philosopher and scientist in the western entire world. He was the first individual to predict an eclipse of the sunshine, which finally took position in 585 B.C. His pupil, Anaximander, was the first evolutionist scientist in the western entire world. He held that all residing items originated from the sea and started to develop in the training course of time into various varieties by suggests of adaptation to their natural environment. He held that person evolved from the animals. Anaximander also held that the earth was not flat but like a cylinder in form and is regarded to have produced the first map in history. Pythagoras the mathematician, Democritus the atomists and Aristotle the biggest scientist in Historic Greece, all lived at this period of time.(Omoregbe 2002, 177)
Religion and theology took the centre phase and became the emphasis of fascination in the middle ages. Ethics, literature and art characterized the renaissance age. Even so, at the emergence of Francis Bacon who laid the basis for inductive product of science, the modern day period of time witnessed the improvement of empirical and experimental science. This was the period of time in which two noteworthy doctrines emerged particularly, the Rene Descartes led Rationalism and the John Locke led Empiricism. But in the present-day period of time the centre of fascination has progressively shifted to science and technology. (Fadaunsi 1997, fifty eight).
It is elementary to mention that the inner aspects and as very well as man’s non complacency and his quest for awareness in every of the periods in the history of society informed the shifts in the emphasis for improvement.
Know-how is what we know as applied science. It is the “systematic examine of tactics for building and accomplishing items” (Gordon 1942, 20). In a like intellect manner, D.P Lauda and R.D Ryan (1971: fifty three) see technology as:
Man’s work to cope with his actual physical natural environment both that furnished by mother nature and t9hat produced by man’s personal technological deeds, these types of as metropolitan areas and his makes an attempt to subdue or manage that natural environment by suggests of his imagination and ingenuity in the use of accessible resources.
Know-how is the application of the discoveries of science to enhance the disorders of human lifetime. It is this application that effects in inventions to enhance human welfare in various sectors of human lifetime. Disciplines like Engineering, Medicine, Facts Technology, Electronics, Architecture, and many others. are applied sciences.(Omoregbe 2002, 179).
The history of technology extends as considerably as the ancestors of person. Technology grows and develops hand in hand with science. Both of those of them compliment every other. The improvement of various applications when person was at the primitive phase in the history of society is recorded to be the first technological revolution. By the time of the Neanderthal Male, a degree of specialization in software building experienced been accomplished. The Cro–Magnon homosapiens mastered some mechanical rules in pottery building and by the period of time of the Neolithic Male, person experienced relatively sophisticated in software building crafts.(Ndubuisi 2002, 132).
By the 16th century, Francis Bacon advocated experimental science and suggested that scientists should examine the procedures of craftsmen. Technology continued to develop with improvement of iron bridges, steam engines and textile machinery. This period of time witnessed the complimentary roles of science with technology. For instance, Edison, the inventor of the first functional lighting utilized the scientific tips of Faraday and Henry, who experienced before experimented on electricity. Bell, the inventor of the telephone also developed it on the scientific tips of Helmholtz.(Ndubuisi 2002, 133).
There is no gainsaying the fact that the revolution that requires position in science and technology in human society is by no imply feat. With the aid of technology, person has been equipped to set to use his tips of just about a great, seamless society with the aid of various gadgets he develops for his benefits. The entire world right now, specially in this 21st century, encounters economic and political growths as a final result of scientific and technological breakthroughs. There are breakthroughs and breakthroughs in the places of electrical power and electrical power, transportation, interaction, medication, architecture, agriculture, field, navy technology, computer, space shuttles, biotechnology and many others.
That improvement in science and technology has contributed to the improvement of productiveness and increased economic advancement in human society is an understatement. The fact is evident that science and technology has a large interaction to productions in all sphere of human society. The industrial revolution which transpired in Europe in the 18th century marked the starting of an economic advancement and revolution. This industrial revolution confirmed a substantial social, economic, and technological change, which commenced with the introduction of steam electrical power, fuelled primarily by coal. The technological and economic progresses recorded of the industrial revolution gained momentum with the introduction of steam driven ships, boats and railways. Even so, at the change of the 19th century, the revolution spread all over Western Europe and North The us, and finally impacting the rest of the entire world. (Wikipedia)
The gatherings subsequent the improved productiveness of labour characterized by the industrial revolution which experienced spread across the entire world led to the ‘second industrial revolution’ starting all around 1870. This next industrial revolution step by step grew to involve “the chemical industries, petroleum refining and distribution, electrical industries and the automotive industries“.(Ndubuisi 2002, 151). In fact, the rising availability of economic petroleum merchandise also diminished the use of coal to the likely for industrialization.
It is for that reason critical to mention that these industrial revolutions, which led to the development of various huge industrial companies with generally practically, globalize intercontinental functions and interests, paved the way for the successive scientific technological revolution that emerged in the forties and fifties. This scientific and technological revolution is so evident in some nations, like the disintegrated Soviet Union and the United States of The us, take a look at to the moon through this period of time. Currently, other nations are subsequent suite. In September 2008, China launched her space shuttle and sent a three person a person 7 days space delegation to the moon.
It can be witnessed from the foregoing that the indelible mark produced by the revolutions in science and technology has motivated the way person, of the modern day age, perceives the entire world. The scientific and technological revolution that has taken the entire world by storm right now stemmed from the industrial revolution of the 18th century. Kolawole Ogundowole (2003: 134) notes that:
In the first 50 percent of the twentieth century particularly through the 194s and 195s there have been elementary shifts in the framework of most sciences and in the scientific action as a final result of major scientific and technical discoveries. This in change led to an improve interaction of science with technology and manufacturing. Precisely, it was through that 10 years that mankind entered the period of time of scientific and technological revolution.
Currently, the scientific and technological revolution is maximizing productiveness of labour. It is changing the complete experience of social product manufacturing. It evidently has a favourable change more than the mother nature, disorders and contents of labour as very well as the composition of successful forces, the social division of labour, and the sectional and occupational framework of society.
In his perception, Dryakhlov (1984: fifty five) defines scientific and technological revolution as:
The radical qualitative transformation and manufacturing forces done as a final result of the merger concerning the scientific and technological revolutions and the conversion of science into a direct successful force.
This indicates that as a person of the primary rules and legislation of dialectics, there exists in human developmental procedures, quantitative and qualitative changes. This affirms the materialist assertion that anything develops from the transformation of quantity into excellent. As a result, scientific and technological revolution is a specific phenomenon related with the conversion of science into direct successful force of the society, “the radical qualitative transformation of the framework of successful forces and the changes in the character and content of human labour”. (Ogundowole 2003, 138).
With the evolution and improvement of science and technology, it has grow to be evident that this revolution has increased manufacturing and use, specially in the developed nations of the entire world, over and above all anticipations of the earlier. It is so feasible that poverty, hunger, and even unemployment on a large scale would be a stage of history. This is why V.G Afanasiev (2003: 139) notes that:
Science is the generator of tips: technology is their product, substantive embodiment even though manufacturing is the region in which the performing of technology happens, in which people today use scientific and technological achievements to obtain their important product wealth.
At this juncture, it is pertinent to mention that the charge of improvement of science and technology and its startling achievements in just about each sphere of human lifetime, specially as it enhances productiveness in human society, is not with no its side results. Karl Marx was a person of all those who pointed it the evil inherent in the industrialization method. Marx was not, however, versus the improvement of technology. But Marx believed that the industrialization method was the evil in the dialectical progression of feudal economic modes, which led to the entire improvement of capitalism. Marx admitted that the industrialization of the society transpired, but it only led to the polarization of society into two main courses. Marx did not deny this industrialization, but was irritated at the exploitation that existed concerning the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. In accordance to Marx (1972: 183):
Industrialization engenders the polarization of societies into two courses, the bourgeois all those who personal the suggests of manufacturing, i.e. the factories and the land, and the substantially more substantial proletarian performing class who truly accomplish the labour important to extract something precious from the suggests of manufacturing.
As a direct result of the scientific technological revolution, Marx opined that speedy breakthroughs in technology still left lots of proficient workers unemployed, as a person agricultural and manufacturing activity soon after another was mechanized. All over again, Marx pointed out that there have been flights of thousands and thousands of unemployed people today from rural places or compact cities to the large metropolitan areas as a final result of the lookup for white collars jobs. As a result, there was the improvement of large city inhabitants centers, which truly led to unparalleled disorders of poverty in the slums that housed workers for the new factories. At the same time, the bourgeoisie class, at only a compact portion as opposed to the proletariat’s dimensions became exceedingly rich.
As a alternative to this problem of unequal distribution of wealth and sheer exploitation of the capitalist system, Marx asserted that the dialectical progression, by itself, is a important precursor to the improvement of socialism and finally communism. Marx (1972: 209) believed that:
The industrial proletariat will finally develop class consciousness and revolt versus the bourgeoisie, leading to a much more egalitarian socialist and finally communist condition in which the workers on their own personal the suggests of industrial manufacturing.
Marx may not be proper with his perception that capitalism, which developed as a final result of the industrialized technological breakthroughs, would collapse and give way to socialism and eventual communism. The actuality in our entire world right now exhibits that capitalism, as versus socialism, strives and technology is advancing. But gatherings in the latest time demonstrate that improvement in technology has not solved most of the existential challenges in our entire world. Progress in food/agricultural technology, for instance, have not halted the shortage of food. Taken that famine is prevalent in most building nations, citizens of the technological sophisticated nations are also crying fowl with the superior expense of food products in their society. In fact the United Nations Corporations, early in the yr 2008, announced that the complete entire world was heading by way of a substantial food crisis.
In the same vein, breakthroughs and revolution in science and technology did not halt the economic recession that transpired in the United States of The us in 2008. In spite of its enhancements of productiveness, scientific and technological revolution did not halt this economic recession in the U.S which led to the decline of more than 800 thousand jobs concerning January and September, 2008. The seven hundred billion dollars economic bail out prepare sent by the erstwhile U.S president Bush and approved by the legislature in October 2008 continues to be to be witnessed in encouraging the economic change all around of the region. Even the stimulus prepare by the recent US president Obama has not produced substantial contribution to the US economy.
Likewise, the revolution in science and technology has not stopped the demise of a quantity of minor kids in China more than the melamine contamination of the little one milk and other diary merchandise. For this reason, regardless of its potentials in maximizing productiveness, its results on labour, human lifetime, job decline, could sometime be devastating.
We are unable to deny the great that the breakthroughs in science and technology have completed to person in practically each component of his lifetime. We are unable to also rule out the fact that person is the instrument of change in the scientific technological revolution. In buy words, science and technological developments are unable to be produced feasible with no person staying at the centre of its development and inventions. This would make B.M Kedrov and S. Shukhardin (2003: 139) consider that “scientific and technological revolution is an integral phenomenon encompassing the complete ‘man–science–production’ system”.
We must however emphasize that science and technology is like a double–edge sword. It has both favourable and unfavorable sides. Even though its results has enormously improved the excellent of human lifetime, its unfavorable side is really devastating to human lifetime.
Male faces significant risk of the damaging side of technology in the places of air pollution, pollution of seas and rivers, the depletion of the ozone layer, poisonous squander, and many others. The damaging results of technology on mankind could also be witnessed in the places of the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction, in specific the manufacture of chemical weapons, atomic bombs, organic and nuclear weapons.(Omoregbe 2002, 181).
The history of modern day entire world has proven that potent nations that have developed these weapons of mass destruction are generally tempted to use it on weaker nations. The atomic weapon of mass destruction utilized by the United States of The us, through the 2nd Globe War, more than Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan is even now clean in our memory. This is why presumably most other nations, like Iran, Korean, India and many others., are building nuclear weapons for on their own in buy to shield on their own and wade off the danger of attack.
There are various other threats that the breakthroughs and revolution in science and technology pose to mankind, but these damaging components of science and technology are not enough excuses to deny the obvious that just about most people any place in the entire world has benefited positively from it. It has improved man’s issue of lifetime by building the necessities of lifetime, like food shelter clothing transportation interaction health and fitness and many others., much more very easily accessible.
It is for that reason our place that the favourable components that can be derived from the science and technology are of excellent worth to person. Male must for that reason make sure that science and technology must be to his service and oriented in direction of human affairs. Male must steer clear of the mistaken use of technology as this may guide to his self destruction. The mistaken use of science and technology poses much more significant threats to entire world peace which person has been hoping to achieve given that the starting of the entire world.
Afanasiev V,G, quoted from Kolawole Ogundowole (2003), Character of Male:
History and Philosophy of Science in 10 Modules, Lagos,
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Today’s Globe, Moscow, Progress Publishers.
Fadaunsi Ayo, (1997), Science and Technology as Promises and Threats to
Societies” in The Nigerian Journal of Philosophy,
Division of Philosophy, University of Lagos.
Gordon G., (1942), What Occurred in Record, London, Oxford University Press.
Kedrov B.M and Shukhardin S. quoted from Kolawole Ogundowole (2003),
Character of Male: Record and Philosophy of Science in 10
Modules, Lagos, Appropriate Counsels Constrained.
Lauda, D.P and Ryan, R.D, (1971), Advancing Know-how, Iowa, W.M.C. Brown
Marx Karl, (1972), Economic, Course and Social Revolution, London, Nelson
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Technology” in Kolawole Ogundowole (ed), Male, Record
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Lagos, Obaroh and Ogbinaka Publihers Constrained.
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Kolawole Ogundowole (ed), Male, Historyn and
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