Contemporary problems in development of science and technology in nigeria


This paper examined several efforts that have been produced to establish science and technology considering that its introduction into the school process when the early Christian missionary arrived in Nigeria. The paper more reviewed unique problems to the development of science and technology in Nigeria. Suggestions were being produced for its development in Nigeria.



Enhancement of science and technology in Nigeria has not been encouraging considering that the introduction of sciences into school curriculum from the time of the early Christian missionary to Nigeria. Science instructing in most Nigerian schools was just Nature Review prior to 1930 (Abdullahi, 1982). Nigerian has not achieved a lot in science and technology and this is why we are nevertheless classified as building country. The so identified as made nations acquired their prosperity through scientific progression (Abdullahi, 1982). Country that is underdeveloped in science will not similarly establish technologically due to the fact science and technology are together science offer with collection of information through scientific procedures and technology makes use of the information to uncover answers to simple difficulties.

Several efforts has been produced by several governing administration in Nigeria to establish science at any time prior to independent a person of this sort of is adjusted of the idea of Typical science as a issue to be made available up to the School Certification to this sort of topics as biology, chemistry and physics. Later on development set enrolment in secondary school at ratio 60:40 concerning Science and Arts topics. 1 major energy aimed at the development of science was the coming together of all science academics in 1957 to inaugurate the Science Teachers’ Association of Nigeria (STAN). The association is concerned with the instructing of science through inquiry and discovery method in which students arrive to recognize and establish science principles by investigating and experimenting on their have (Abdullahi, 1982).

Complex colleges, School of Arts, Science and Technology, Faculties of instruction Complex, Polytechnics and Universities of Technology were being all founded in the country in a quest to establish science and technology. The process of instruction was adjusted from the a person inherited from our colonial master to six-three-three-4 process of instruction. In accordance to Rufai (2007) the six-three-three-4 coverage is essential for the so a lot ideal technological breakthrough and the governing administration has produced her stand obvious by stating her commitment to scientific and technological progression of the country.  Equipment were being introduced from foreign countries to assure that this process labored and academics were being despatched to abroad for more experiments to empower them in shape in to the news process of instruction.

 With all these efforts produced at building science and technology and thinking about its worth to accomplishing self reliance of a country as said by Adebayo (2001) that there is want for nations to establish scientifically and technologically due to the fact of the job it plays in accomplishing self reliance. There are nevertheless quite a few problems to the development of science and technology in Nigeria that make her considerably driving other nations of the globe.

Contemporary Challenges


For science and technology to be made to meet up with the globe regular as it is in the made nations today there ought to be adequate resources to instruct science at all stage of instruction. Ajileye (2006) opined that insufficient resources for instructing and finding out of science represent a major result in of students’ achievements. This insufficient useful resource contains laboratories, science devices, and specimens utilized as instructing aids. Enhancement of science and technology are not able to be separated from the good quality of university student a country is making from her schools.

Waziri (2002) noticed that millions of naira-truly worth of devices purchased for the development of introductory technology is nevertheless lying uninstalled because of to lack of suited workshops and laboratories. Nations that do not have laboratories, science devices and specimens to instruct students will surely make inadequate students in science and technology who are to turn out to be engineers and researchers tomorrow. An important useful resource in the development of science and technology is competent teacher. Waziri (2002) said the scarcity of competent academics for vocational- specialized instruction programme triggered predominantly by inadequate payment as when compared to the more appealing chances in field and commerce.

Complex colleges are not for a longer time taken critical quite a few of these colleges have been closed down due to the fact they lack students and commitment by the governing administration. These specialized colleges are really important for the teaching of talent craftsman and artisans that are really essential to the technological development of any country.

Foundation of Science

Foundation is really important in any project and that is why there is want for a good foundation for audio science instruction from main school through great technique of instructing and well structure curriculum. Akinola (2006) was of the view that students unsuccessful science due to the fact of teacher’s methodology and the structuring of the curriculum. Science instructing is not taken critical in quite a few of our main schools this tends to make a course teacher who is not a trained science teacher to be instructing science. It is only in secondary school we have academics specialised in issue regions but in main science academics are ‘multipurpose’ which is really mistaken. What do you be expecting from a teacher who is a graduate of social experiments instructing science in main school? At his or her best would conclusion up in destroying the scientific skill of the pupils. The summary is that a bad scientific seed is planted and when it germinates we ought to not be expecting just about anything superior. In accordance to Oyedele (2007) science instruction is the ‘seed ‘to be planted if technological development is to be made. He said if Nigeria is to be among the sophisticated societies of the globe, outfitted with present day technology of her have creating, she ought to get ready her citizens for foreseeable future roles of predicating them on good and audio science instruction. Nigeria children are really great, clever and can compete with their counterpart in any element of the globe if they have great teacher who teaches with great methods. In the view of Oyedele (2007) the regular Nigerian youngster is capable, clever and gifted in all spheres of lifetime.

High quality of Education and learning

The good quality of Nigerian instruction is inadequate because of to inadequate leadership and corruption. Ogunwoye (2003) said lack of teacher motivation, recognition and reward guide to inadequate good quality of instruction. Nigeria governing administration do not price instruction and that reflect in their spending plan every yr. They gave really modest allocation to instruction as when compared to security forgetting that instruction is capital intensive. They make insufficient fund accessible to purchase and managed laboratories and workshop devices. Idris (2002) noticed lack of money to procure expected spare components to maintain the devices for specialized instruction. The difficulties of our governing administration according to Adedibu (2001) in formulating audio goals and best answers to our difficulties have resulted in the mismanagement of resources, mistaken planning and misplaced of developmental priorities this has badly impacted our educational process in the latest many years.


Societal perspective

Nigerian society is a major challenge to our development of science and technology. An regular Nigerian do not have absolute confidence in any progression produced by his or her fellow Nigerian in the field of science and technology due to the fact according to Adedibu (2001) they have a lot regard for merchandise from other nations at the expense of regionally made merchandise and this is owning an adverse impact on our technological development. Right until we understand to take and regard our indigenous energy in the field of science and technology and regard our Nigeria produced merchandise we may possibly not make a lot development in science and technology. Some Nigerian experienced produced significance development in medicine specifically in combating HIV/AIDS but due to the fact they are Nigerians no person recognises their efforts but negatively criticized.

Institutional rivalry

A different challenge to the development of science and technology in Nigeria is rivalry concerning several institutions specifically concerning college and polytechnics (Katende, 2007). The place these institutions supposed to operate together as partners in development to establish science and technology they are concentrating on which a person is excellent in certification. In accordance to Mfon (2007) if the polytechnic, college, governing administration and other stakeholders operate together to investigation ambitions, our march to technological and scientific breakthrough will be at sight.

Technological transfer

Around dependence on foreign aids in sort of technological transfer is another challenge. In accordance to Adedibu (2001) technological transfer is a process of acquisition of specialized teaching that can assist a country specialized development from other nations. The obtaining country is anticipated to control, maintain, replicate and make improvements to on this technology through investigation devoid of the assist of the providing country. Nonetheless, Nigeria scenario is unique we have been tied to the apron of the providing country. There is absolutely nothing bad in technological transfer but the process ought to comprehensive by halt based on the providing country and this guide to our technological development.

Educational supplies

Scarcity and inadequate use of tutorial material for instructing and finding out of sciences in schools is a critical challenge in most Nigerian schools. Kola (2007) said the want for the use of tutorial aids in instructing physics in Nigerian schools are not able to be overemphasized. The academics are about dependent on foreign produced or superior identified as ‘already made’ equipment, the greater part do not have the skill to improvise for the profit of their students. In accordance to Daniel (2001), academics want to be uncovered to the generation and finding out supplies utilizing accessible resources specifically at this age of facts technology. The table under show tutorial material makes use of for instructing and finding out physics in two regional governing administration secondary schools in a condition in Nigeria.


Educational material

Share of utilized (%)

Share not utilized (%)



Audio tape





one hundred



one hundred



one hundred


Printed supplies





one hundred






Video clips

one hundred








group resources




Supply: Kola (2007).


Science and technology is really important to the development of a country and for that reason its development ought to be offering a well known placement in the governance of any country. It is noticeable from the earlier mentioned discussion that science and technology has not been well made because of to problems that can be triumph over if we are establish to do so. Most of these problems are manmade problems that can be triumph over.


Mainly because of the vital job of science and technology in the development of a country I will like to make the adhering to recommendation for its development in Nigeria.

It is important to commence the development of science from the main school through the use of discovery technique of instructing. This empower pupil appreciates science and also be artistic in their method to science somewhat than the widespread observe of memorization. Most important school academics who are not science teacher ought to not be authorized to instruct science as from the current technique the place course academics are produced to instruct all topics in his or her course like science. Science academics ought to be individual from other topics as it is finished in secondary schools.

Science academics ought to be inspired, enthusiastic and deliver for more teaching in their field of experiments consistently. Attendance of seminar, conferences and workshops ought to sort element of science teacher’s promotion at all degrees.

Complex colleges ought to be resuscitated in all condition of the country and governing administration ought to make more than enough money accessible for the teaching of specialized academics both regionally and overseas. Money ought to also be presented for the acquire of specialized equipments and developing of present day specialized workshop.

Professionalism ought to be strictly adhere to in instructing, it ought to not just be any person that can go to classroom and instruct, it ought to be specialist academics. This is important due to the fact of the technique of instructing and right improvisation of science tutorial supplies.

Nigerian ought to have regard, price and patronise our regionally produced merchandise governing administration ought to depend it as a felony offence for anybody rejecting or disdain merchandise make in Nigeria.

Govt ought to fortify our investigation institutions to lessen country about dependence on foreign aids and support to control, maintain, and replicate specialized teaching acquired from other nations somewhat than nevertheless based on them right after extensive several years of gotten it.

Lastly our governing administration ought to make instruction to be initial in the nation’s spending plan as there is no country that can develop earlier mentioned the stage of her instruction.


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